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Anesthesiology

Glaucoma surgery

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Glaucoma (Greek: “opacity of the crystalline lens”) is a condition in which there is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) which may eventually compress blood flow to the optic nerve, leading to eventual blindness. It is the second most common cause of blindness in the United States. It…
Anesthesiology

Tracheostomy / Standard and Bedside

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Tracheostomy, or direct surgical opening of the trachea, is a common procedure performed in critically ill patients. The most common indication for tracheostomy is respiratory failure with ventilator dependency and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Other common indications are upper airway obstruction, protection of tracheobronchial…
Anesthesiology

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition that develops early in gestation whereby abdominal organs, which may include midgut along with the stomach, colon, left kidney, and left lobe of the liver are extruded into the thoracic cavity through a defect in the diaphragm. The left…
Anesthesiology

Abdominal Trauma – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Abdominal surgery following traumatic injury is performed primarily for two reasons: (1) bleeding, in which there is injury to one or more blood vessels or a solid organ (i.e. spleen, liver, kidney), or (2) contamination, in which there is a hollow viscus injury with intra-abdominal spillage…
Dermatology

Calcinosis Cutis (Benign Cutaneous Calcification, Benign Nodular Calcification)

Are You Confident of the Diagnosis? Calcinosis cutis may be triggered by multiple diverse etiologies, ranging from chronic illnesses to acute traumatic and iatrogenic insults to the skin. Calcinosis cutis is classified as dystrophic, metastatic, iatrogenic, or idiopathic based on these causative agents. Dystrophic calcification results from localized trauma or inflammation in patients with normal…
Anesthesiology

The Thrombophilic Parturient (e.g., LMWH)

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Pregnancy induces a hypercoagulable state. While the incidence of thromboembolic complications in the peripartum period is low, they remain a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In most cases, the risks associated with administering anticoagulation therapy are greater than those of the hypercoagulable state associated…
Critical Care Medicine

Hypotension

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Hypotension is blood pressure (BP) that is below that expected for a person in a particular demographic category. Neonates have systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the 50’s and that is entirely adequate for them, whereas a middle-aged person would be expected to have an…
Anesthesiology

Female urinary incontinence surgery – procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure While urinary incontinence is prevalent in a large number of women (roughly half of all women aged 20 to 80 by survey studies), fewer than half will seek consultation and treatment for this condition. Many older women may have comorbidities (such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus,…
Anesthesiology

The Infected Parturient

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Infection is the second leading cause of pregnancy-related mortality in the United States (13.6% for 2006-2010). Unlike post-partum hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mortality from infections has not decreased over the past decades. It is imperative that the anesthesiologist know the source of infection, the…
Anesthesiology

Repair of facial fractures – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Facial fractures are the major type of maxillofacial trauma. They also result in airway compromise, vision loss and hemorrhage, which can be life-threatening. The causes of facial fractures vary, with the most common being motor vehicle accidents, sport related injuries, assaults and gunshots. Following high velocity…
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