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Pediatrics

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has hemolytic uremic syndrome? What are the typical findings for this disease? Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome [HUS] is defined by the almost simultaneous onset of acute renal failure, acute hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and thrombocytopenia. The most frequent type of HUS is associated…
Rheumatology

CPPD Arthropathy

Does this patient have calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease? Definitions Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is an umbrella term encompassing all instances of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPP) crystal precipitation in connective tissues seen in asymptomatic patients or associated with several clinical syndromes. The names traditionally used to describe CPPD crystal deposition disease…
Pulmonary Medicine

Malignant Pleural Effusion

What every physician needs to know: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a common clinical problem that results in disabling breathlessness for patients with advanced malignancy. It represents disseminated disease and confers a poor prognosis. Patients often require multiple invasive procedures in order to gain a diagnosis and manage their symptomatic pleural effusions, which impacts their…
Hospital Medicine

Nephrolithiasis

Nephrolithiasis I. What every physician needs to know Stones composed of calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate make up 85-90% of renal stones in the United States. Precipitation of calcium in urine causes these stones, and stones have been linked to hypercalciuria, high salt diets, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, genetic factors, and environmental factors. Uric acid, cystine,…
Gastroenterology Hepatology

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma

How can I be sure that the patient has pancreatic adenocarcinoma? Common signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer include fatigue, abdominal pain often radiating to the back, jaundice, nausea with or without vomiting, anorexia, early satiety, and weight loss. Additionally, up to 80% of individuals with pancreatic cancer will be shown to have glucose intolerance…
Anesthesiology

Lumpectomy and mastectomy – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, and In the United States, over a lifetime, 1 in 8 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 1 in 35 will die from the disease. In contrast, male breast cancer is rare,…
Anesthesiology

Glaucoma surgery

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Glaucoma (Greek: “opacity of the crystalline lens”) is a condition in which there is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) which may eventually compress blood flow to the optic nerve, leading to eventual blindness. It is the second most common cause of blindness in the United States. It…
Anesthesiology

Tracheostomy / Standard and Bedside

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Tracheostomy, or direct surgical opening of the trachea, is a common procedure performed in critically ill patients. The most common indication for tracheostomy is respiratory failure with ventilator dependency and the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation. Other common indications are upper airway obstruction, protection of tracheobronchial…
Anesthesiology

Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a condition that develops early in gestation whereby abdominal organs, which may include midgut along with the stomach, colon, left kidney, and left lobe of the liver are extruded into the thoracic cavity through a defect in the diaphragm. The left…
Anesthesiology

Abdominal Trauma – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Abdominal surgery following traumatic injury is performed primarily for two reasons: (1) bleeding, in which there is injury to one or more blood vessels or a solid organ (i.e. spleen, liver, kidney), or (2) contamination, in which there is a hollow viscus injury with intra-abdominal spillage…
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