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Pediatrics

Obstructive sleep apnea

What every physician needs to know: Obstructive sleep apnea (also known as sleep apnea hypopnea, particularly outside North America) is a common disorder: population-based studies in the U.S. have shown a prevalence in the general, working-age population of roughly 9 percent of women and 24 percent of men. The prevalence rises with advancing age and,…
Hospital Medicine

Obstructive sleep apnea

I. What every physician needs to know. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder, characterized by recurrent complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway during sleep. It is typically characterized by fragmented sleep from arousals due to respiratory events and oxygen desaturations and may result in neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiovascular comorbidities,…
Oncology

Neuroendocrine Tumors

What every physician needs to know: Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and particularly NF-NET (non-functional-NET) patients are commonly misdiagnosed and/or diagnosed late in their disease course as their symptoms are nonspecific, insidious in onset and present for years. Presenting symptoms include those attributable to a specific clinical syndrome and/or tumor-related symptoms such as involuntary weight loss, pain,…
Anesthesiology

Endoscopic sinus surgery – procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Endoscopic sinus surgery remains one of the most effective management options for patients with chronic sinusitis. It offers symptomatic relief for 90% of patients and entails a low-risk ambulatory anesthetic for most patients. What are the indications for functional endoscopic sinus surgery? Chronic, recurrent, acute complications…
Anesthesiology

Obesity

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Bariatric surgical procedures have traditionally been grouped as either malabsorptive (biliopancreatic diversion, for example) or restrictive (including gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy) depending on the presumed mechanism for weight loss. The most commonly performed bariatric procedure in the United States, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), does…
Anesthesiology

Inguinal herniorrhaphy

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Elective inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common surgeries performed and can be done under a wide variety of anesthesia methods. It is also one of the most common ambulatory surgical procedures. Comorbidities are rare and mainly related to age and any associated cardiorespiratory,…
Anesthesiology

Uterine Curettage – Procedures

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure During uterine curettage, an instrument is used to scrape or suction the uterine lining to diagnose and/or treat abnormal bleeding or to remove products of conception. If not already dilated, the cervix must first be opened mechanically or chemically. The indication for the dilation and curettage…
Anesthesiology

Ablation of Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) or Ventricular Arrhythmia (Combine)

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Atrial fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia, with a prevalence of 0.4% to 1% in the general population, increasing to 8% in those older than 80 years. Propagation of electrical activation during AF is uncoordinated and unpredictable in its anatomic path. AF is…
Anesthesiology

Corneal Transplantation

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Corneal transplantation is an outpatient procedure utilizing corneal tissue from a cadaver. The graft can be either partial (lamellar keratoplasty) or full (penetrating keratoplasty) and involve synthetic tissue or stem cells. Transplantation is usually indicated after visual loss from corneal cloudiness or distortion in shape secondary…
Oncology

Clonal and non-clonal mast cell activation disorders

Clonal and non-clonal mast cell activation disorders What every physician needs to know: Mast cell activation disorders are a heterogeneous group in which patients present with signs and symptoms of disease mediated by the synthesis and release of activation products such as reformed vasoactive amines, newly generated arachidonic acid derived mediators, and induced cytokines. Mast…
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