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Hospital Medicine

Spinal cord tumors and compression

I. What every physician needs to know. Diagnosis of spinal cord compression is usually urgent given the dense concentration of motor and sensory pathways in a small area. Delay in diagnosis can lead to lifelong immobility, bladder dysfunction and decreased survival irrespective of the underlying pathological diagnosis. Early recognition may reverse neurological deficits and because…
Infectious Diseases

Herpes Zoster, including varicella and virology

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Varicella – Zoster Virus (VZV) VZV is an alpha herpes virus that is a double stranded DNA virus. What is the best treatment? Localized zoster treatment The goals of therapy are to increase the healing of skin lesions, decrease shedding of the virus to…
Hospital Medicine

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a disorder that may cause abdominal bloating, gassiness, crampy abdominal pain, diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), alternating constipation and diarrhea, mucousy stools, and fecal urgency. Individuals feel the need to defecate immediately following a bowel movement. Although many patients experience a great…
Critical Care Medicine

Beta blocker and Ca+ Channel blocker overdose; BB and CCB OD

Beta Blocker and Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose Synonyms BB and CCB OD Related Conditions BB Overdose CCB Overdose 1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Beta blocker (BB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdoses are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment is similar for both types of overdoses and should…

Congenital Cysts of Neck (Thyroglossal Duct Cysts including Lingual, Brachial Cleft Cysts

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Congenital cystic lesions of the neck include midline and lateral defects, in descending order of frequency, thyroglossal duct cyst, branchial cleft anomalies, dermoid cysts, hemangiomas, and lymphangiomas. Malformations of the midline Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDCs) are the most common congenital cyst encountered in the neck, representing…

Percutaneous valve repair and replacement

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Percutaneous valve repair and replacement procedures have proven as the treatment of choice in high risk and inoperable patients. These procedures are now being expanded to intermediate risk and are currently in trial in lower risk patients. The rapid advancement in the area of percutaneous valve…


What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Parathyroidectomy is the definitive surgical treatment for elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is the principal hormone regulating calcium hemostasis. PTH maintains serum calcium by stimulating bone resorption, thus releasing calcium, and by enhancing gastrointestinal absorption and inhibiting renal excretion of calcium. In primary hyperparathyroidism…

Open Globe Injuries

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure? An open globe occurs when there is a breach in the sclera or cornea, usually as a result of either blunt or penetrating trauma. The major concerns in this case include infection of intraocular contents (endophthalmitis) and possible expulsion of intraocular contents, which may cause distortion…

Overdose – Common Medications

Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has overdosed on common medications? What are the typical findings for this disease? Acetaminophen toxicity Acetaminophen is commonly used in the pediatric population for many different indications including for its antipyretic properties and its analgesic properties. The therapeutic dose of acetaminophen is 15-20…

Obstructive sleep apnea

What every physician needs to know: Obstructive sleep apnea (also known as sleep apnea hypopnea, particularly outside North America) is a common disorder: population-based studies in the U.S. have shown a prevalence in the general, working-age population of roughly 9 percent of women and 24 percent of men. The prevalence rises with advancing age and,…
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