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Pediatrics

Urticaria

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has urticaria? What are the typical findings for this disease? Urticaria is a vascular reaction of the skin marked by the transient appearance of smooth, slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are pale or slightly erythematous and that are often attended by severe pruritus…
Infectious Diseases

Peritonitis and Intraperitoneal Abscesses

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has peritonitis or intraperitoneal abscesses? What should you expect to find? General History, physical examination, and routine laboratory studies will identify most patients with suspected intra-peritoneal infection. However, in many patients, the clinical signs and symptoms alone may not be sufficient to make…
Critical Care Medicine

Immunodeficiencies in Infants and Children

Treating opportunistic infections in HIV-infected children and adolescents Synonyms Pediatric AIDS, Pediatric HIV Related conditions Mycobacteria [Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)], Invasive and Recurrent Bacterial Infections, Fungi [Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP), Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasmosis], Protozoa [Toxoplasmosis] and Viruses [Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus I and II and Varicella Zoster]. 1. Description of the…
Cardiology

Evaluation and Management of Syncope

I. Evaluation and Management of Syncope: What every physician needs to know. Syncope is a symptom not a diagnosis. Syncope is characterized by transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) due to a spontaneously self-limited (usually at most a minute or two) period of cerebral hypoperfusion. The term “presyncope” is best used to depict a period of…
Pulmonary Medicine

Perioperative Pulmonary Considerations

What every physician needs to know: The respiratory system is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of general anesthesia and surgery, and postoperative pulmonary complications are commonly encountered. Overall, pulmonary complications account for approximately 25 percent of deaths in the postoperative period. Pulmonary complications also contribute to increased intensive care and hospital lengths of stay,…
Anesthesiology

Obstructive lesions

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Airway obstruction in the pediatric population presents unique challenges to the anesthesiologist. It is imperative that the anesthesiologist has a thorough and complete understanding of the following prior to the procedure. The embryogenesis of the airway The anatomy of the pediatric airway The challenge posed by…
Anesthesiology

Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage – Prediction and Management

What the Anesthesiologist Should Know before the Operative Procedure Obstetric hemorrhage accounts for 25% to 30% of all maternal deaths worldwide and causes death in underdeveloped countries at a rate 100 times that in developed countries. Most deaths are due to postpartum hemorrhage. In developed countries, postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of major maternal…
Critical Care Medicine

Low Cardiac output

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know There is no consensus on the absolute definition of a “low cardiac output state.” It is a syndrome evidenced by a low cardiac output or cardiac index (cardiac index <2.4L/min/m2) with evidence of organ dysfunction—for example, a high lactate or urine output <0.5 ml/kg/hour.…
Pediatrics

Submersion injuries: Drowning

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Submersion injuries are the second leading cause of death in the pediatric population and a significant cause of disability in children. According to the recent World Health Organization (WHO) bulletin report, drowning is a major global public health concern. In 2005, the WHO adopted the following definition of…
Infectious Diseases

Influenza Viruses

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Influenza viruses (types A, B, C) are segmented, negative-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses in the Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A viruses of various subtypes infect many animal species (e.g., birds, swine, horses, dogs, marine mammals, and felids) in addition to humans. Influenza A viruses are…
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