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Your search for anesthesia returned 838 results

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Critical Care Medicine

Low Cardiac output

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know There is no consensus on the absolute definition of a “low cardiac output state.” It is a syndrome evidenced by a low cardiac output or cardiac index (cardiac index <2.4L/min/m2) with evidence of organ dysfunction—for example, a high lactate or urine output <0.5 ml/kg/hour.…

Management of Pulmonary Hypertension

I. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: What Every Physician Needs To Know. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder specific to the pulmonary arteries, resulting in an increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), leading to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, right heart failure, and death. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) refers to elevated pressure in…

Overdose – Drugs of Abuse

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has overdosed? What are the typical findings for this condition? Stimulants Stimulants are a class of compounds that accelerate neuronal and/or physical activity. These include a number of both prescription and recreational drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, anticholinergics, and sympathomimetics. In general, they…


OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has esophagitis? What are the typical findings for this disease? A wide variety of symptoms and signs are associated with GERD and esophagitis in childhood (See Table I). Table I. Clinical Manifestations of GERD in Children The most common symptoms and signs of…
Critical Care Medicine

Pigment Nephropathy

1. Description of the problem Pigment nephropathy is an abrupt decline in renal function as a consequence of the toxic action of endogenous hem-containing pigment on the kidney. Such pigments include myoglobin, released from skeletal muscle in rhabdomyolysis, and hemoglobin, released during intravascular hemolysis. Once released into the systemic circulation they are filtered by the…

Obstructive sleep apnea

What every physician needs to know: Obstructive sleep apnea (also known as sleep apnea hypopnea, particularly outside North America) is a common disorder: population-based studies in the U.S. have shown a prevalence in the general, working-age population of roughly 9 percent of women and 24 percent of men. The prevalence rises with advancing age and,…

Bladder Cancer

What every physician needs to know: In 2016, it is expected that 76,960 new cases of bladder cancer will be diagnosed in the United States. During the same period of time, it is expected that 16,390 patients will die from bladder cancer. There are multiple histologic subtypes of bladder cancer. In Western countries 90% of…
Hospital Infection Control

Gram positive bacteria – Enterococcus

Gram positive bacteria – Enterococcus What are Gram positive bacteria – enterococci? Enterococci are ubiquitous gram-positive cocci, calatase-negative, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic organisms, that belong to the Lancefield group D streptococci. Enterococci are normally present, as colonizers, in the intestinal tract of human beings and animals, and can be recovered from feces in large quantities. Enterococci…
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