Opioids: Not an Effective Stand-Alone Treatment for Chronic Pain Following Surgery
Patients need multimodal treatment options for their post-surgical chronic pain.
Administration of clonidine — intrathecally or intravenously — may not supplement spinal anesthesia-associated analgesia after cesarean delivery.
With the distinct qualities that come from post-surgical procedures in the realm of pediatrics, conclusions are still being considered.
With the increasing number of patients presenting to surgery with opioid tolerance, clinicians should be familiar with their specific analgesic needs.