Chronic kidney disease appears to be an independent risk factor for gout, according to American researchers.
For the study, investigators observed the development of gout among participants in the Framingham Heart Study 1948-2002.
Using Cox proportional hazard models, the researchers estimated the odds of CKD leading to gout among men and women separately. They adjusted results for other risk factors, including age, alcohol consumption, smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, and body mass index.
According to results published in BMJ Open, the incidence of gout among CKD patients was 6.82 per 1,000 persons per year compared to 2.43 for those without the disease.
In multivariable models, CKD was associated with double the odds of gout among men and women.
The study adds to the growing body of epidemiological research supporting the hypothesis that CKD is a risk factor for future gout.
Gout or gouty arthritis is a common and painful inflammatory arthritis characterised by deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joint fluid and articular tissue.
Gout affected more than 7.5 million Americans during 2009–2010, including 1.25 million men and 0.78 million women with moderate or severe renal impairment.
The probability of gout can arise depending not only on urate load but also on other risk factors such as older age, obesity, male sex, female menopause, hyperuricaemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), excessive purine-rich diet and excessive alcohol consumption…