There is rapidly growing interest in the use of marijuana and cannabinoids for pain.
Marijuana use is risky for young people and pregnant women.
For patients with chronic pain (CP), both mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) improve physical functioning, pain intensity, and depression.
Although cannabinoids were found to improve the pain experience in individuals subjected to experimental pain, they were not found to have analgesic effects on existing experimental pain, suggesting that these agents may modulate affective processes.
Dispositional mindfulness may help reduce the risk for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain by attenuating opioid craving and directing attention to naturally rewarding stimuli.
Improving the ability to communicate about pain may help reduce the negative effects associated with ambivalence over emotional expression on pain catastrophizing in patients with osteoarthritis pain.
Warm showers and perineal exercises may be effective for reducing the pain associated with childbirth.
Acupuncture may represent an effective adjuvant therapy in the management of joint pain associated with aromatase inhibitor treatment in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Acupuncture is a safe and effective alternative to pain medications for some emergency department patients.
Acupuncture and mock laser treatment yield similar psychophysical responses.