HealthDay News — Zika virus infection may be associated with incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome, according to a study published in The Lancet.
Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, PhD, from the Institut Louis Malardé in Papeete, French Polynesia, and colleagues conducted a case-control study involving 42 case patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed during the Zika outbreak period between October 2013 and April 2014 in French Polynesia. Cases were matched with 2 groups of controls: age-, sex-, and residence-matched patients presenting with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; 98 patients) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; 70 patients).
The researchers found that 98% of the patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M or IgG, and 100% had neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus, compared with 56% of control group 1 (P < 0.0001).
The majority (93%) of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 88% had experienced a transient illness a median of 6 days prior to onset of neurological symptoms.
Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings concordant with acute motor axonal neuropathy type; disease evolution was rapid.
Twenty-nine percent of patients required respiratory assistance and none died.
“Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at-risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care bed capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome,” the authors wrote.
Cao-Lormeau V, Blake A, Mons S, et al. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. Lancet. 2016;0(0). doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00562-6.