She said treating adolescent patients must encompass several components, including psychological and social. Psychological components include the grief cycle, cognitive processes, comorbid diagnoses, fear avoidance, physical trauma, body image, and substance use and abuse. Social components include peer groups, familial support, absenteeism, and cultural factors. 

TRENDING ON CPA: Aligning Pain Management Ratings: Connecting With Your Patient 

Another important component to consider in the management of the adolescent with pain is their spirituality, including their spiritual pain and uncertainty, as well as their spiritual community. Awareness of this aspect of an individual’s personality can assist the healthcare provider in guiding the patient to find meaning in his or her suffering.

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1. World Health Organization. Adolescent health and development. Accessed August 14, 2015.

2. King S, Chambers CT, Huquet A, et al. The epidemiology of chronic pain in children and adolescent revisited:  a systematic review. Pain. 2011;152(12):2729-2738.

3. Eccleston C, Jordan AL, Crombez G. The impact of chronic pain on adolescents: A review of previously used measures. J Pediatr Psychol. 2006;31(7):684-697.

4. Santrock JW. Child Development. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

This article originally appeared on MPR