Post-ICU syndrome includes psychological effects — depression, anxiety, and PTSD — as well as worsened physical functioning.
Although there is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the management of postoperative pain medication in the ambulatory setting, some findings suggest an approach similar to that used for the treatment of acute pain.
With the increasing number of patients presenting to surgery with opioid tolerance, clinicians should be familiar with their specific analgesic needs.
The use of non-opioid analgesic therapies is increasing among ED physicians.
The most promising tools to predict acute pain after cesarean delivery are local anesthetic infiltration before placement of spinal anesthesia, and asking patients simple questions about anticipated pain and analgesic needs.
Pain management in athletes requires a clear understanding of the different types of pain and various factors that can contribute to pain in this population.
Fewer randomized controlled trials include children vs adult cohorts, and the evidence pertaining to this population.
A number of shortcomings are associated with systematic reviews and meta-analyses of postoperative care.