Patients With COVID-19 Experience Pain Consistent With Dry Eye

Scan of Retina
Ophthalmology office. Masked patient and doctor – Covid 19. Scan of the retina, an examination that allows you to precisely visualize the different parts of the eye. This imaging makes it possible to observe the retina in order to detect, for example, a retinal uplift with edema or a diabetic retinopathy. It is used to monitor wet AMD about every two months and complements the fundus to see if an injection of treatment is needed. OCT is also used to examine the optic nerve, and therefore screen for or monitor glaucoma. (Photo by: Pascal Bachelet/BSIP/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
SARS-CoV-2 infection shares similar morphological alterations with dry eye disease and diabetic corneas, researchers say.

COVID-19 may generate small fiber neuropathy in the ocular surface, sharing similar symptoms and morphological indicators with dry eye disease (DED) and diabetic neuropathy, according to a study published in the Ocular Surface.

Investigators sought to characterize the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and small fiber neuropathy in the cornea. The observational retrospective study included 23 patients (18 women, 5 men) who had overcome COVID-19 between March and December 2020, and 46 uninfected volunteers. 

All participants underwent vivo confocal microscopy to obtain images of corneal subbasal nerve fibers in order to evaluate the presence of neuroma-like structures, axonal beadings and dendritic cells. The investigators used the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and Schirmer tear test as indicators of Dry Eye Disease (DED) and ocular surface pathology.

The research team found that 21 out of 23 patients (91.31%) had alterations of the corneal subbasal plexus and corneal tissue consistent with small fiber neuropathy. The team noted that images from healthy participants did not show significant nerve fiber or corneal tissue damage. 

In total, 8 patients reported increased sensations of ocular dryness following COVID-19 infection and had positive DED indicators. Beaded axons were found in 82.60% of patients, typically in those reporting ocular irritation symptoms. Neuroma-like images were found in 65.22% of patients, occurring more frequently in those with OSDI scores of >13. Dendritic cells were found in 69.56% of patients and occurred more frequently in younger asymptomatic patients.

“The presence of morphological alterations in patients up to 10 months after recovering from Sars-CoV-2 infection points to the chronic nature of the neuropathy,” according to the study. “To our knowledge, this is the first report of signs of corneal neuropathy in patients that have overcome COVID-19.”

Reference

Barros A, Queiruga-Piñeiro J, Lozano-Sanroma J, et al. Small fiber neuropathy in the cornea of Covid-19 patients associated with the generation of ocular surface disease. Ocul Surf. Published online November 12, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.jtos.2021.10.010

This article originally appeared on Ophthalmology Advisor