Indications for: Acetaminophen w. Codeine
Management of mild-to-moderate pain where an opioid is appropriate and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Use lowest effective dose for shortest duration. Individualize. #3: initially 1–2 tabs every 4hrs as needed. #4: initially 1 tab every 4hrs as needed. Max 360mg codeine and 4g acetaminophen per 24hrs. Conversion from other opioids: see full labeling. Concomitant use or discontinuation of CYP2D6 inhibitors, CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers: monitor closely and consider dose adjustments (see full labeling). Withdraw gradually by 25–50% every 2–4 days.
<12yrs: see Contraindications.
Acetaminophen w. Codeine Contraindications:
Children <12yrs. Post-op management in children <18yrs following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Significant respiratory depression. Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. Known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. During or within 14 days of MAOIs.
Addiction, abuse, and misuse. Life-threatening respiratory depression. Accidental ingestion. Ultra-rapid metabolism of codeine and other risk factors for life-threatening respiratory depression in children. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome. Cytochrome P450 interactions. Hepatotoxicity. Risks from concomitant use with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants.
Acetaminophen w. Codeine Warnings/Precautions:
Life-threatening respiratory depression; monitor within first 24–72hrs of initiating therapy and following dose increases. Accidental exposure may cause fatal overdose (esp. in children). Risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death related to ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine (esp. in children for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain). Avoid in adolescents 12–18yrs with conditions associated with hypoventilation (eg, post-op status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, concomitant drugs that cause respiratory depression). COPD, cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression; monitor and consider non-opioid analgesics. Abuse potential (monitor). Increased risk of hepatotoxicity with acetaminophen doses >4g/day, alcohol abusers. Adrenal insufficiency. Head injury. Increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors; monitor. Seizure disorders. CNS depression. Impaired consciousness, coma, shock; avoid. Biliary tract disease. Acute pancreatitis. Discontinue at the 1st sign of rash or any other hypersensitivity. Drug abusers. Sulfite sensitivity. Renal or hepatic impairment. Ultra-rapid metabolizers (due to CYP2D6 polymorphism): avoid. Reevaluate periodically. Avoid abrupt cessation. Elderly. Cachectic. Debilitated. Pregnancy; potential neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome during prolonged use. Labor & delivery, nursing mothers: not recommended.
Acetaminophen w. Codeine Classification:
Opioid + analgesic.
Acetaminophen w. Codeine Interactions:
Increased risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, sedation with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (eg, non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, alcohol, other opioids); reserve concomitant use in those for whom alternative options are inadequate; limit dosages/durations to minimum required; monitor. Avoid concomitant other acetaminophen-containing products. Risk of serotonin syndrome with serotonergic drugs (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, triptans, 5-HT3 antagonists, mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol, MAOIs, linezolid, IV methylene blue); monitor and discontinue if suspected. Avoid concomitant mixed agonist/antagonist opioids (eg, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine) or partial agonist (eg, buprenorphine); may reduce effects and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. May be affected by CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, amiodarone, quinidine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, bupropion). Potentiated by CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, macrolides, azole antifungals, protease inhibitors). Antagonized by CYP3A4 inducers (eg, rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin). May antagonize diuretics; monitor. Paralytic ileus may occur with anticholinergics. May cause false (+) urine test for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.
Drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating, constipation; respiratory depression, severe hypotension, syncope, hepatotoxicity; rare: serious skin or hypersensitivity reactions.
Formerly known under the brand name Tylenol w. Codeine #3.