Sheldon Campbell, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Sheldon Campbell

All articles by Sheldon Campbell

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

At a Glance Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can cause either acute or chronic hepatitis. Asia: All countries Africa: All countries South Pacific Islands: All countries Middle East (except Cyprus and Israel) European Mediterranean: Malta and Spain The Arctic (indigenous populations of Alaska, Canada, and Greenland) South America: Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, and Amazon regions of…

Hepatitis D (HDV)

At a Glance Hepatitis D virus (HDV; aka Delta hepatitis or Delta agent) is a small RNA virus that can replicate only in cells also infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provide the envelope structures for HDV. Hepatitis B replication is usually suppressed in active HDV infections. Hepatitis D is rare in the…

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)

At a Glance Hepatitis E is a single-stranded RNA virus spread primarily by fecal-contaminated water in endemic areas but is occasionally person to person, via food or transfusion. Endemic areas include Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Central America, but the seroprevalence in one U.S. study was 21%. Clinical hepatitis with hepatitis E virus (HEV)…

Hepatitis G (GBV-C)

At a Glance Hepatitis G virus, more properly known as GB virus type C (GBV-C), is a flavivirus; the same class of viruses as hepatitis C and yellow fever virus. It appears highly endemic in human populations but has not been definitively associated with human disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that infection with GBV-C…

Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)

At a Glance Hepatitis A is a viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route. The incidence has been declining in the United States during the past decade, mostly because of immunization. Major pathways of transmission include close contact with an infected person; male homosexual practice; contact with contaminated…

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

At a Glance Most acute cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are asymptomatic and anicteric, but, because of the high incidence of HCV in the United States, 20% of acute viral hepatitis is caused by HCV. The signs and symptoms of acute symptomatic hepatitis C may include fever, chills, fatigue, myalgias, anorexia, nausea, and right…

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