Sankar Swaminathan, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Sankar Swaminathan

All articles by Sankar Swaminathan

Kaposi’s Sarcoma (Microbiology)

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), is a member of the family Herpesviridae. KSHV, like Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a lymphocryptovirus that belongs to the subfamily of gammaherpesviruses. KSHV is further subclassified as a gamma-2 herpesvirus, or rhadinovirus.…

Liver, Intestinal and Lung Flukes

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Parasite name and classification There are three major types of liver flukes pathogenic for humans: Clonorchis sinensis, various Opisthorchis species (viverrini, felineus) and Fasciola species (hepatica and gigantica). All flukes are trematodes, a subset of platyhelminthes (flatworms). There are many species of intestinal flukes that infect humans, primarily…

Enteroviruses including poliovirus, echovirus, coxsackievirus

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Enteroviruses are a genera within the family Picornaviridae. They have a single strand RNA genome. Each capsid is comprised of 60 subunits, formed from four structural proteins (V1-V4) and is 27nm in size. The Enteroviruses are divided into 5 species (poliovirus and human enteroviruses…

Adenovirus

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Adenovirus is a double-stranded DNA virus in the family Adenoviridae. Human adenoviruses are divided into six species (A-F). Individual serotypes are designated numerically (e.g., Ad5, Ad7). Clinical syndromes are associated with specific serotypes, although there is wide geographic and temporal variation in strains resulting…

Agents of Mucormycosis (Clinical Condition)

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has mucormycosis? What should you expect to find? Rhinosinusitis, rhino-orbital, and rhinocerebral infections Although initial symptoms are often indistinguishable from other causes of sinusitis, several factors favor the diagnosis of mucormycosis. Does your patient have classic risk factors (i.e., uncontrolled diabetes or prolonged…

Herpes Zoster, including varicella and virology

OVERVIEW: What every clinician needs to know Pathogen name and classification Varicella – Zoster Virus (VZV) VZV is an alpha herpes virus that is a double stranded DNA virus. What is the best treatment? Localized zoster treatment The goals of therapy are to increase the healing of skin lesions, decrease shedding of the virus to…

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