Pradip Kamat, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Pradip Kamat

All articles by Pradip Kamat

Hypo/hyperkalemia

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Potassium (K) is a major intracellular cation. Kidneys eliminate 85-90% of daily K excretion. Normal serum K is between 3.5-5.5mEq/L. Hypokalemia is a serum K concentration of less than 3.5mEq/L. Hyperkalemia is a serum concentration of greater than 5.5mEq/L. Common causes of hypokalemia: G.I.…

Hypo/hyperphosphatemia

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know 85% of phosphorous is present in bones and teeth, 14% is in soft tissues and 1% is in extracellular space. 60% of plasma phosphate is present in ionized forms; whereas remaining is bound to plasma proteins or other cations such as calcium, sodium and…

Hypo/hypernatremia

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know Normal serum sodium (Na) is tightly regulated between 135 to 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia results when serum na is below 135meq/L. Hypernatremia is present when serum Na is greater than 150mEq/L. Na disturbances are usually a problem of water balance rather than sodium balance. this…

Airway Management, pediatric

1. Description of the problem What every clinician needs to know The basic principles of airway management in children and adults are the same. Remember what patient(s) require is oxygen and not the plastic (as in endotracheal tube). This is an especially important tenet to remember in the ‘difficult’ pediatric airway. If a patient can…

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