Page 5 – Clinical Pain Advisor

Hypercalcemia

Overview: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has hypercalcemia? What are the typical findings for this disease? Hypercalcemia with a very low serum phosphate concentration suggests the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. In infants, hyperparathyroidism may result from unrecognized maternal hypoparathyroidism or pseudohypoparathyroidism. Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a form of…

Myxedema coma

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has myxedema coma? What are the typical findings for this disease? Myxedema coma occurs in patients with long-standing hypothyroidism and a precipitating stressful event. It is rare in children. The most common precipitating event is an infection, but it can occur following trauma,…

Thyrotoxicosis/thyroid storm

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Thyroid storm is a rare disorder in children characterized by severe manifestations of thyrotoxicosis, but in addition, usual features include hyperthermia and altered mental status, ranging from agitation or delirium to extreme lethargy or coma, and, rarely, seizures. Presentation is usually triggered by a precipitating event, such as…

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has Familial Mediterranean Fever? What are the typical findings for this disease? Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited periodic fever syndrome and predominantly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by lifelong recurrent episodes of fever and illness due…

Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma What every physician needs to know: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is divided into two subgroups, including classical HL (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). While classical HL is divided into four distinct entities: nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte-rich, and lymphocyte-depleted, the subtypes have little prognostic significance with current therapies. However, differentiating between…

Fanconi anemia

Fanconi anemia What every physician needs to know: Fanconi anemia is a recessively inherited disorder classically characterized by bone marrow failure, congenital anomalies, and cancer predisposition. Malignancies typically include acute myelogenous leukemia, squamous cell carcinoma (oral, esophageal, vulvar), and liver adenomas or hepatocellular carcinomas. The clinical phenotype of Fanconi anemia is broad. The absence of…

Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia What every physician needs to know: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of blood forming cells. Many principles of cancer therapy have been developed in the context of treating AML, making it a paradigm for cancer chemotherapy. Ready access to tumor tissue (the malignant cells circulating in blood) has allowed tumor…

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia What every physician needs to know: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a neoplasm involving precursor lymphoblasts committed to either the B-cell or T-cell lineage. ALL is primarily a disease of children, with about 75% of cases occurring in patients under 6 years of age. The incidence of ALL is about 2 per…

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Differentiated Thyroid Cancer *The original source for this chapter was Stephanie Lee, MD. The chapter was revised for this program by David Gerber, MD. What every physician needs to know: Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) of thyroid epithelium account for more than 90% of thyroid cancer. In areas of sufficient iodine nutrition, the prevalence of DTC…

Small cell lung cancer

What every physician needs to know: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive epithelial tumor with neuroendocrine characteristics, which accounts for 15% of all lung cancer diagnoses. SCLC has a rapid doubling time and predilection to metastasize early; approximately two-thirds of patients present with metastatic disease. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible.…

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