Page 3 – Clinical Pain Advisor

Airway foreign bodies

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has an airway foreign body? What are the typical findings for this disease? Airway foreign bodies are a common pediatric emergency, but often the child will recover from the initial event with very few residual physical findings. A thorough history and high index…

Obstructive sleep apnea

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has obstructive sleep apnea? What are the typical findings for this disease? Obstructive sleep apnea should be suspected in children who snore, have restless sleep or show labored breathing and/or apnea. Other nocturnal symptoms include sweating, enuresis, parasomnia (sleep walking and talking) and…

Cystic fibrosis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has cystic fibrosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Patients with cystic fibrosis can be asymptomatic at diagnosis if diagnosed through newborn screening or secondary to a positive family history. In symptomatic diagnosis, they can have a single or multisystem presentation…

Pulmonary Hypertension

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has pulmonary hypertension? What are the typical findings for this disease? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and children. Since the introduction of new targeted therapies, survival has markedly improved. Nevertheless, there is still no cure…

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has a patent ductus arteriosus? What are the typical findings for this disease? The ductus arteriosus (DA) is a normal and essential fetal structure and is patent at the time of birth. In healthy term infants, the DA closes within 1 to 2…

Retinopathy of prematurity

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP)? What are the typical findings for this disease? Peripheral areas of avascular retina The development of a ridge between avascular and vascularized retina where fibrovascular proliferation can occur Retinal vessel tortuosity and dilation (Plus Disease) Iris neovascularization Vitreous…

Uveitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has uveitis? Uveitis is a group of disorders characterized by the presence of intraocular inflammation. There are many causes of uveitis with numerous clinical manifestations. Referral to an ophthalmologist is always necessary to confirm the presence of intraocular inflammation. If uveitis is suspected,…

Hypocalcemia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has hypocalcemia? What are the typical findings for this disease? Hypocalcemia may present with irritability, tetany, seizures, apnea (in the neonate), laryngospasm or paresthesias (in the older child). The presence of a prolonged QT interval by electrocardiography is a physiologic marker of hypocalcemia.…

Demyelinating Disease

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has demyelinating disease? What are the typical findings for this disease? Demyelinating diseases are a class of related disorders in which the immune system, both B- and T-cells, inappropriately targets myelinated neurons and resulting in damage to the myelin sheath around neurons, injury…

Aspergillosis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has aspergillosis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Infection with Aspergillus species can manifest as allergic or invasive disease. Invasive aspergillosis often presents as fever despite antibacterial therapy in the immunocompromised patient, especially in the setting of abnormal lung radiographs. The…

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