Majed Refaai, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Majed Refaai

All articles by Majed Refaai

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

At a Glance Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a potentially life-threatening disorder that involves a pathological activation of coagulation system. This clinical syndrome can be triggered by a variety of disorders that lead to the formation of widespread intravascular thrombosis. Depending on the underlying condition, two clinical forms of DIC have been described: acute (decompensated)…

Hemostasis Defects Associated with Liver Disease

At a Glance Liver failure is a life-threatening condition that most often arises gradually, over months to years (chronic) or, less often, rapidly over days to weeks (acute). It can result from any type of liver disorder, including viral hepatitis B or C; excessive alcohol use; autoimmune, hereditary, and metabolic causes; infections; cancer; or exposure…

Hemostasis Defects Associated with Uremia

At a Glance Uremia is a clinical syndrome that usually evolves in parallel with deterioration of renal function. This syndrome is more common in chronic renal failure, yet it can also be seen in acute renal failure if rapid loss of renal function occurs. In addition to the fluid, acid-base, and electrolytes imbalance due to…

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

At a Glance Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the triad of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and acute renal failure. This rare, life threatening disease predominantly affects children, mostly younger than five years of age, and is considered the most common cause of sudden short-term acute kidney failure in children. Although…

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)

At a Glance Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, life-threatening, multisystem disorder with an estimated incidence of 2-10 cases per million/year. This hematologic emergency affects all racial groups and both sexes, two- to three-fold higher among females. TTP is characterized by five features (pentad) consisting of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), fever, variable neurological…

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