Lokinendi V. Rao, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Lokinendi V. Rao

All articles by Lokinendi V. Rao

Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC)

At a Glance Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare (1-2 per million population), aggressive tumors that may be functional (hormone secretory) and cause Cushing’s syndrome and/or virilization and present as an abdominal mass or incidental findings. ACCs can develop at any age, and there is a bimodal age distribution with disease peaks before 5 years of…

Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS)

At a Glance Ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is caused by nonpituitary tumors that secrete either adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and/or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cause bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Clinical presentation resembles Cushing’s syndrome (CS): amenorrhea, hirsutism, hypertension, impotence, muscular wasting, skin atrophy, neuropsychiatric dysfunction, osteoporosis, truncal–central obesity, weight gain–water retention, moon face, weakness, fatigue, backache, headache,…

Addison's Disease (AD)

At a Glance Addison’s disease (AD), also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypoadrenalism, is a rare disorder of the adrenal glands. It affects the production of cortisol and aldosterone. It may occur at any age and affects both sexes equally. Because of common therapeutic use of steroids, secondary adrenal insufficiency is relatively common. Autoimmune…

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

At a Glance Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders of cortisol hormone biosynthesis. They are caused by 1 of several distinct enzyme defects that lead to defective adrenal gland steroid biosynthesis. CAH results from three disturbances: Lack of cortisol production Lack of aldosterone production Over synthesis of androgens These disturbances…

Adrenal adenoma

At a Glance Adrenal adenomas are benign tumors of the adrenal glands. Most adrenal adenomas are spotted by chance at the time of computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) verifying some other symptoms. They are classified as either functional (hormone secreting) or nonfunctional (incidentalomas) and as either benign or malignant. The majority of…

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