Linda Russell, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Linda Russell

All articles by Linda Russell

Steroid-Induced osteoporosis

Does this patient have glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis? Glucocorticoids (GCs) have many side effects. One of the most devastating can be osteoporosis and fracture. Although no dose of glucocorticoid is considered entirely safe for bone, the higher the dose of glucocorticoid, the greater the effect on bone. The effect is also most prominent during the first 3-6…

Osteopenia

Does this patient have Osteopenia? Osteopenia is defined by the World Health Organization. The diagnosis is based on the results of the dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip and forearm. If the T-score is more than -1.0 and less than -2.5 SD, the patient has osteopenia. The T-score…

Osteoporosis

Does the patient have osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density (BMD). Testing is best done with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The T-score compares the patient to a healthy gender and ethnicity-matched 30 year old. This age is used for comparison because it correlates with peak bone mass. If the T-score is -2.5 SD…

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