Ernie Esquivel, Author at Clinical Pain Advisor

Ernie Esquivel

All articles by Ernie Esquivel

Intrinsic Renal Disease

I. Problem/Condition. Acute renal failure (ARF) may occur in patients due to the presence of intrinsic renal disease, referring to pathologic processes involving the glomeruli, renal tubules, vessels or interstitium. This contrasts with prerenal causes of ARF, in which renal perfusion is compromised by true hypovolemia or a decrease in effective circulating volume, and postrenal…

Diabetes Insipidous

I. What every physician needs to know. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by polyuria (greater than 3 liters a day) and polydipsia, due to congenital or acquired absence of, or resistance to, vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone, ADH) action, leading to failure to concentrate urine. Countercurrent exchange mechanisms in the kidney allow for regulation…

Metabolic alkalosis

I. Problem/Condition. Metabolic alkalosis refers to conditions that result in an elevation in the serum bicarbonate (HCO3-), to levels greater than 28 mmol/L, and an alkaline serum pH, greater than 7.40. The accumulation of base due to the addition of alkali, either in the form of bicarbonate or a precursor, such as lactate, citrate or…

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