Page 4 – Clinical Pain Advisor

Encephalitis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has encephalitis? What are the typical findings for the disease? Any inflammation of the brain constitutes encephalitis, whether caused by direct invasion of the brain by an infectious agent (primary encephalitis), by immune response to an infectious process (parainfectious or post-infectious encephalitis), or…

Hemangioma

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has an infantile hemangioma? What are the typical findings for this disease? Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common tumor of childhood, with an estimated incidence of 4 to 5%, and up to 10% in Caucasian infants. The majority require anticipatory guidance and…

Recurrent Pneumonia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has recurrent pneumonia? What are the typical findings for this disease? Recurrent pneumonia is defined as 3 or more episodes of pneumonia in a lifetime or 2 or more episodes within a six-month period. The most common symptoms are cough, wheeze, dyspnea, and…

Parapneumonic effusion/empyema

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has a parapneumonic effusion or empyema? What are the typical findings for this disease? Parapneumonic effusion or empyema is a collection of fluid in the pleural space as a result of pneumonia. The diagnosis of parapneumonic effusion or empyema is based on history…

Bronchiectasis

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has bronchiectasis? What are the typical findings for this disease? Bronchiectasis is defined as dilatation of the bronchi usually associated with thickened bronchial walls and decreased airway wall stiffness. The most common symptoms are chronic cough, usually productive or wet, and recurrent chest…

Delayed passage of meconium

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has delayed passage of meconium? What are the typical findings for this disease? Delayed passage of meconium, defined as failure of the newborn to pass meconium within 24-48 hours, is an important symptom in the neonate and warrants evaluation for disorders that lead…

Urinary tract infection

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Urinary tract infection [UTI] is one of the most common infections in childhood. The diagnosis should be made by culture positivity. Initial therapy should be guided by age of the patient and symptom severity, and should include adequate treatment to assure infection eradication. Evaluation of the urinary tract…

Hyperinsulinism

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know about hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in neonates and children Are you sure your patient has hyperinsulinism? What are the typical findings for this disease? Hyperinsulinism is the most common hypoglycemic disorder in infants and neonates. Transient neonatal hyperinsulinism is common due to perinatal stress, including birth asphyxia, preeclampsia, and intrauterine…

Diabetic ketoacidosis/cerebral edema

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has diabetic ketoacidosis–related cerebral edema? What are the typical findings for this disease? Cerebral edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is responsible for the majority of diabetes-related deaths in children. Cerebral edema typically occurs after several hours of…

The Infant with Ambiguous Genitalia

OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Ambiguous genitalia is considered an emergency from a medical as well as a psychological standpoint. Medically, the rationale for this is that congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common causes of ambiguous genitalia and, if present, would put an infant at risk for an adrenal…

Next post in Pediatrics